Plsql Procedures | Parameter (Computer Programming) | Pl/Sql

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  http://www.tutorialspoint.com/plsql/plsql_procedures.htm Copyright © tutorialspoint.com PL/SQL - PROCEDURES  A  subprogram is a program unit/module that performs a particular task. These subprograms are combined toform larger programs. This is basically called the 'Modular design'. A subprogram can be invoked by anothersubprogram or program which is called the calling program. A subprogram can be created: At schema levelInside a packageInside a PL/SQL block  A schema level subprogram is a standalone subprogram . It is created with the CREATE PROCEDURE orCREATE FUNCTION statement. It is stored in the database and can be deleted with the DROP PROCEDUREor DROP FUNCTION statement. A subprogram created inside a package is a packaged subprogram . It is stored in the database and can bedeleted only when the package is deleted with the DROP PACKAGE statement. We will discuss packages in thechapter 'PL/SQL - Packages'.PL/SQL subprograms are named PL/SQL blocks that can be invoked with a set of parameters. PL/SQLprovides two kinds of subprograms: Functions : these subprograms return a single value, mainly used to compute and return a value. Procedures : these subprograms do not return a value directly, mainly used to perform an action.This chapter is going to cover important aspects of a PL/SQL procedure and we will cover PL/SQLfunction in next chapter. Parts of a PL/SQL Subprogram Each PL/SQL subprogram has a name, and may have a parameter list. Like anonymous PL/SQL blocks and, thenamed blocks a subprograms will also have following three parts: S.N.Parts & Description 1 Declarative Part It is an optional part. However, the declarative part for a subprogram does not start with theDECLARE keyword. It contains declarations of types, cursors, constants, variables, exceptions, andnested subprograms. These items are local to the subprogram and cease to exist when thesubprogram completes execution.2 Executable Part This is a mandatory part and contains statements that perform the designated action.3 Exception-handling This is again an optional part. It contains the code that handles run-time errors. Creating a Procedure  A procedure is created with the CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE statement. The simplified syntax for theCREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE statement is as follows: CREATE[OR REPLACE]PROCEDURE procedure_name [(parameter_name[IN|OUT|IN OUT]type[, ...])] {IS|AS}  BEGIN <procedure_body> ENDprocedure_name;  Where,  procedure-name specifies the name of the procedure.[OR REPLACE] option allows modifying an existing procedure.The optional parameter list contains name, mode and types of the parameters. IN represents that value will be passed from outside and OUT represents that this parameter will be used to return a value outsideof the procedure.  procedure-body contains the executable part.The AS keyword is used instead of the IS keyword for creating a standalone procedure. Example: The following example creates a simple procedure that displays the string 'Hello World!' on the screen whenexecuted. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE greetingsASBEGINdbms_output.put_line('Hello World!'); END;/  When above code is executed using SQL prompt, it will produce the following result: Procedure created. Executing a Standalone Procedure  A standalone procedure can be called in two ways:Using the EXECUTE keywordCalling the name of the procedure from a PL/SQL block The above procedure named 'greetings' can be called with the EXECUTE keyword as: EXECUTE greetings; The above call would display: Hello WorldPL/SQL procedure successfully completed. The procedure can also be called from another PL/SQL block: BEGINgreetings;END;/ The above call would display: Hello WorldPL/SQL procedure successfully completed.  Deleting a Standalone Procedure  A standalone procedure is deleted with the DROP PROCEDURE statement. Syntax for deleting a procedure is: DROP PROCEDURE procedure-name; So you can drop greetings procedure by using the following statement: BEGINDROP PROCEDURE greetings;END;/ Parameter Modes in PL/SQL Subprograms S.N.Parameter Mode & Description 1 IN  An IN parameter lets you pass a value to the subprogram. It is a read-only parameter . Insidethe subprogram, an IN parameter acts like a constant. It cannot be assigned a value. You can pass aconstant, literal, initialized variable, or expression as an IN parameter. You can also initialize it to adefault value; however, in that case, it is omitted from the subprogram call. It is the default modeof parameter passing. Parameters are passed by reference. 2 OUT  An OUT parameter returns a value to the calling program. Inside the subprogram, an OUTparameter acts like a variable. You can change its value and reference the value after assigning it. The actual parameter must be variable and it is passed by value .2 IN OUT  An IN OUT parameter passes an initial value to a subprogram and returns an updated value to thecaller. It can be assigned a value and its value can be read.The actual parameter corresponding to an IN OUT formal parameter must be a variable, not aconstant or an expression. Formal parameter must be assigned a value.  Actual parameter ispassed by value. IN & OUT Mode Example 1 This program finds the minimum of two values, here procedure takes two numbers using IN mode and returnstheir minimum using OUT parameters. DECLAREa number;b number;c number;PROCEDURE findMin(x IN number,y IN number,z OUT number)IS BEGINIF x<y THENz:=x; ELSEz:=y;  ENDIF; END; BEGINa:= 23; b:= 45; findMin(a,b,c); dbms_output.put_line(' Minimum of (23, 45) : ' ||c); END;/   When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces the following result: Minimum of (23, 45) : 23PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. IN & OUT Mode Example 2 This procedure computes the square of value of a passed value. This example shows how we can use sameparameter to accept a value and then return another result. DECLAREa number;PROCEDURE squareNum(x IN OUT number)IS BEGINx:=x*x; END; BEGINa:= 23; squareNum(a); dbms_output.put_line(' Square of (23): ' ||a); END;/  When the above code is executed at SQL prompt, it produces the following result: Square of (23): 529PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Methods for Passing Parameters  Actual parameters could be passed in three ways:Positional notationNamed notationMixed notation POSITIONAL NOTATION In positional notation, you can call the procedure as: findMin(a,b,c,d); In positional notation, the first actual parameter is substituted for the first formal parameter; the second actualparameter is substituted for the second formal parameter, and so on. So, a is substituted for x, b is substituted for y, c is substituted for z and d is substituted for m. NAMED NOTATION In named notation, the actual parameter is associated with the formal parameter using the arrow symbol ( => ).So the procedure call would look like: findMin(x=>a,y=>b,z=>c,m=>d); MIXED NOTATION In mixed notation, you can mix both notations in procedure call; however, the positional notation should precedethe named notation.The following call is legal:
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