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Gender, Power, and Persona in the Poetry of Baudri of Bourgueil by Susannah Giulia Brower A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Centre for Medieval Studies University of Toronto © Copyright by Susannah Giulia Brower 2011 Gender, Power, and Persona in the Poetry of Baudri of Bourgueil Susannah Giulia Brower Doctor of Philosophy Centre for Medieval Studies University of Toronto 2011 Abstract The late eleventh and early twelfth centurie
  Gender, Power, and Persona in the Poetry of Baudri of Bourgueil bySusannah Giulia Brower  A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirementsfor the degree of Doctor of PhilosophyCentre for Medieval StudiesUniversity of Toronto© Copyright by Susannah Giulia Brower 2011    ii Gender, Power, and Persona in the Poetry of Baudri of Bourgueil Susannah Giulia Brower Doctor of PhilosophyCentre for Medieval StudiesUniversity of Toronto2011  Abstract The late eleventh and early twelfth centuries saw a revival in the study of Ovid in the literarycircles of the Loire Valley region of France. The poetry of Baudri, abbot of Bourgueil fromapproximately 1078-1107 and archbishop of Dol from 1107 until his death in 1130, exemplifies this trend. Baudri‘s determinedly Ovidian collection contains 256 poems, several of which areaddressed to nuns and to boys subject to his authority as abbot. Baudri ‘ s use of Ovid displays anintricate understanding of the issues of  gender and power at play in Ovid‘ s works, in particular the  Ars Amatoria and  Amores . Baudri uses his position of authority to manipulate his inferiorsinto behaving in ways that are pleasing to him, crafting an unflattering persona that shares manycharacteristics with the unsympathetic Ovidian amator  and  praeceptor amoris . Baudri‘s lette rsto boys problematically evoke the tradition of monastic friendship letters, using classical allusionto represent an inappropriately sexualized and manipulative discourse. His letter to the nunConstance and her reply depict a struggle for control of discourse. Constance, by following Ovid‘s instructions to the elegiac  puella in her reply to Baudri, demonstrates that she is circumscribed by Baudri‘s d ominant male discourse, which she nonetheless manages toundermine from within. Baudri ‘ s depiction of the power relationships between himself and hissocial inferiors mirrors the relationship between the Ovidian  praeceptor amoris and the elegiac  puella , and consequently engages with the plight of his inferiors in the same way that Ovid‘s    iii  poetry draws attention to the dangerous lives of the courtesans in his elegy. Furthermore, hisOvidianism can be situated within the context of the contemporary Gregorian Reforms. In thesame way that the  puella can be seen as a  projection of elite Roman males‘ experience of disenfranchisement amidst the rise of the Principate, Baudri‘s problematic correspondence with his social inferiors reflects social anxieties in the face of the Church‘s assertion of centralized  power and curtailment of clerical freedoms.      iv  Acknowledgments I have been extremely fortunate in the support I have received at all stages of writing thisdissertation. Most importantly I want to thank my supervisor, Professor David Townsend, whose patience and guidance have been unfailing throughout my time at Toronto. He has been aconstant source of support as I have completed my coursework, my major fields, and now thisdissertation, helping me organize my scattered thoughts into a coherent topic and take the projectinto a far more sophisticated direction than I had initially imagined. He is always willing tomake time to talk about ideas, even by phone when he is out of town, and I could not have askedfor a better supervisor. I also thank the rest of my dissertation advisory committee, ProfessorsJohn Magee and Alison Keith, both of whom devoted a great deal of their time to reading and providing helpful feedback on drafts. Professor Keith generously agreed to join the committeeeven though she had only met me once, and she has always taken care to include me in Classicsdepartment events that may be of interest. Professor Magee has consistently gone out of his wayto be helpful, starting during my MA year when he took time out of his busy schedule tosupervise a directed reading course for me. Finally, I am grateful to the whole committee for their forbearance and understanding during my final rush to submit before the deadline.Professor Lawrin Armstrong deserves special mention for all of his help during my major fields.I wish that there had been a feasible way of working the Humanists into the dissertation, becauseit would have given me an excuse to keep him on board.I would also like to thank Grace Desa, Rosemary Beattie, and Liz Pulickeel, without whom Isuspect the Centre would entirely cease to function.I am very grateful to Professors Michael Herren and Sharon James, my internal and externalexaminers, for their time and attention. Both professors gave me thought-provoking and usefulfeedback, and their insights will be a tremendous help as I continue my work on this topic. Extrathanks are due to Professor James, whose own work on elegy was one of my main sources of inspiration for this dissertation.I would never have decided to pursue a graduate degree if not for the encouragement I receivedas an undergraduate at Bryn Mawr College. I owe a debt of gratitute to the entire faculty of theFrench and Classics departments, but in particular to Professors Darby Scott, Grace Armstrong,
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