4Phases of Research Process - Hanacek | Quantitative Research | Hypothesis

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PHASES OF RESEARCH PROCESS JAN HANACEK If one would like to have truthful information on world around, on nature, on human being, he/she have to look for convincing data. Collecting such data is process complicated, and complex and due to this very difficult. For layman or even for medical student at the beginning of her/his professional career can seem this statement hypertrophic, overshot, and not very probable. Their view will change quickly when they are involved in research (even very simpl
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  PHASES OF RESEARCH PROCESS JAN HANACEK  If one would like to have truthful information on world around, on nature, on human being, he/she have to look for convincing data. Collecting such data is process complicated,and complex and due to this very difficult. For layman or even for medical student at the beginning of her/his professional career can seem this statement hypertrophic, overshot, andnot very probable. Their view will change quickly when they are involved in research (evenvery simple). It is generally accepted that reliable information on human health state arenecessary for prevention of disease development and disease treatment. Only way how toobtain such information is research in which are used scientific methods and it is doneby qualified and experienced scientists. Generally, research is understood as systematic, controlled, empiric and criticalinvestigation of hypothetic statements on supposed relationships among phenomenon . Itis a process in which thinking is dominant . Characteristic features of research are:   – Systematic solving of scientific problems– using scientific methods– System of interconnecting phases and stepsThe research process should be understood as one of ongoing planning, searching , discovery, reflection, synthesis, revision, and learning, as shown in the figure 1 below:  Fig. 1 The inspiration for the Research process model image above was the reflective modelfrom: Edwards S. Bruce C. Reflective Internet Searching, an Action Research Model .   In:Action Learning, Action Research and Process Management, Theory, Practice Praxis. ActionResearch Unit, Griffith University. 5th World Congress of Action Learning, Action Researchand Process Management, University of Ballarat, Victoria, September, pp. 141-152. Cited in:Bruce, Christine Susan. Information Literacy as a Catalyst for Educational Change: ABackground Paper. U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, 2006.<http://www.nclis.gov/libinter/infolitconf&meet/papers/bruce-fullpaper.pdf >.As showed above research is composed of a certain phases and steps . Step order mayvary depending on the subject matter and researcher (Wikipedia, 2009).Taking into account differentguidelines one can distinguishesdifferent number of phases/steps inresearch process. Frequently, those phases/steps can have differentnames, e.g. Olin and Uris Libraryoffer seven steps in doing research(Kaste and Hartman, 1998). Other guidelines recommend from 10 to 23steps in running research (AAMC,2001; Basic Steps in the ResearchProcess. Cambridge Rindge and Latin School CRLS Research Guide,http://crlsresearchguide.org; Olin Levi Warner Research helping the torch of knowledge.  Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington D.C.) It seems rational toreduce the number of research phases to five and each of phases can be divided to certainsteps.The following five phases outline a simple and effective strategy for conductingeffective research: I. The conceptual phaseII. Phase of construction of research designIII. Empiric phaseIV. Analytic phaseV. Disseminative phase Phases of research process are most frequently used in the presented order. But inother guidelines you can find another order of phases and steps. This variability can beascribed to flexibility of the formal rules of research process which should be adapted toa studied subject and to the special conditions under which the research is done. I. Phase of conception According   Brink at al. (2006)   this phase of research involves activities with a strongconceptual element. „Conceptualisation refers to the process of developing refining abstractideas. During this phase, the researcher categorises and labels his/her impressions. Thus, the activities   include thinking, rethinking, theorising, making decision, and reviewing ideas with colleagues, research partners or mentors/supervisors. The researcher also needs to drawon the skills and abilities of creativity, analysis and insight, as well as on the firmgrounding of existing research on the topic of interest“ .Phase of conception   is the first phase of srcinal research. In this phase are created content and structure of the planned research. Creation of conception of new researchproject is structured process. It can be divided into 4 steps as follows:  1) Formulation of research problem or research questions, set bounds of them, determine the purpose of the study2) Searching and review the literature relating to the regarding research problemand develop a framework 3) Development of the theoretical construction of the future research4) Creation of hypothesis which should be verified/phalsified in future research  1)Formulation of research problem and set bounds of itThe first step of the research work is to state the scientific problem . It is importantto clearly state what your problem is to avoid any confusion later. Formulation of scientificproblem is frequently recognized as the most difficult and the most important part of research project . Precisely it was expressed by A. Einstein (paraphrase): „If I have one hour for solving the problem on which my life depends, than I will devote 40 minutes to study the problem, 15 minutes to analyse the ways how to solve it, and only 5 minutes to solve it“.Scientific problem is frequently stated in form of  a question .If formulation of scientific problem is so difficult and important who than is qualified todo this job? There is consent that it should be a person(s): – with large and high quality of knowledge in the respective field, –with high creativity, able to think independently, large knowledge in culture andhistory, with ability to persist in research despite of serious problems, –with non-conventional thinking,– able to doubt on recent valid truth (dogmas),– able to formulate and publicly present his/her own doubts, – with appropriate dose of curiosity,– able to resist to fashionable hypotheses and theories,– able to preserve independent thinking in the „sphere“ of strong scientific and/or political personalities,  – with high grade of perseverance in looking for scientific problem and its definition,able to look at scientific problem from different points of view,– possessing excellent memory and appropriate dose of emotionality. How the really important scientific problem can be discovered and defined? According the definition the problem is something you’d like to know more about, aquestion you’d like to answer. Such questions can come from many different sources: fromlectures or textbooks, from an experiment you have just made (that raised another questions),from articles you’ve read in scientific journals or even newspapers and magazines. To identify a scientific problem , than, you can find sources that relate to your topic and look tosee what problems are raised in your search. Write down the problems that you find. Chooseone that would be interesting to solve and that is feasible for you to solve (  NC State
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